Section 11.0: Authorization


By the act of submission of any real property listing content to the Service, the Participant represents and warrants that he or she is fully authorized to license the property listing content as contemplated by and in compliance with this section and these rules and regulations, and also thereby does grant authority to the Service and to each Shareholder and Association of REALTORS® who subscribe to the Service license to include the listing content in its copyrighted “Compilation,” as that term is defined herein, and also in any statistical report on “Comparables.”  The term “Compilation.” as used in Section 11 and 12 herein, shall be construed to mean any collection or assembling of real property facts, content, and information disseminated hereunder to the Participants in the Service without regard to the medium or form of presentation including, but not limited to, bound book, loose-leaf binder, computer database, card file, or any other format.  Listing content includes, but is not limited to photographs, images, graphics, audio and video recordings, virtual tours, drawings, descriptions, remarks, narratives, pricing information, and other details or information related to listed property.[1]

Each Participant who submits listing content to the MLS agrees to defend and hold the MLS and every other participant harmless from and against any liability or claim arising from any inaccuracy of the submitted listing content or any inadequacy of ownership, license, or title to the submitted listing content.

[1] Note:     The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a federal copyright law that enhances the penalties for copyright infringement occurring on the Internet.  The law provides exemptions or “safe harbors” from copyright infringement liability for online service providers (OSP) that satisfy certain criteria. Courts construe the definition of “online service provider” broadly, which would likely include MLSs as well as participants and subscribers hosting an IDX display.

One safe harbor limits the liability of an OSP that hosts a system, network or website on which Internet users may post user-generated content. If an OSP complies with the provisions of this DMCA safe harbor, it cannot be liable for copyright infringement if a user posts infringing material on its website. This protects an OSP from incurring significant sums in copyright infringement damages, as statutory damages are as high as $150,000 per work.  For this reason, it is highly recommended that MLSs, participants and subscribers comply with the DMCA safe harbor provisions discussed herein.

To qualify for this safe harbor, the OSP must:

(1)  Designate on its website and register with the Copyright Office an agent to receive takedown requests. The agent could be the MLS, participant, subscriber, or other individual or entity.

(2)  Develop and post a DMCA-compliant website policy that addresses repeat offenders.

(3)  Comply with the DMCA takedown procedure. If a copyright owner submits a takedown notice to the OSP, which alleges infringement of its copyright at a certain location, then the OSP must promptly remove allegedly infringing material. The alleged infringer may submit a counter-notice that the OSP must share with the copyright owner. If the copyright owner fails to initiate a copyright lawsuit within ten (10) days, then the OSP may restore the removed material.

(4)  Have no actual knowledge of any complained-of infringing activity.

(5)  Not be aware of facts or circumstances from which complained-of infringing activity is apparent.

(6)  Not receive a financial benefit attributable to complained-of infringing activity when the OSP is capable of controlling such activity.

Full compliance with these DMCA safe harbor criteria will mitigate an OSP’s copyright infringement liability. For more information see 17 U.S.C. §512.




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